SMT Line Layout: A Complete Guide2023-08-23T10:39:48+00:00

SMT LINE The Ultimate Guide

SMT is the abbreviated form of Surface Mounted Technology, and the line refers to the production lines which could be applied flexibly in factory layout.

Accordingly, Electronicstalk is able to provide complete SMT line layout solutions with the customers and help them to select the best suitable machines efficiently from the professional recommendations of the experienced engineers.

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Let Us Explore The Secret Of SMT LINE

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    What is SMT Line?

    1. The definition of SMT Line

    SMT is the abbreviated form of Surface Mounted Technology. The critical operation for SMT is below:

    In the process. there is a kind of circuit assembly technology. we usually call it SMC or SMD.

    People can assemble SMD or SMC on the surface of the printed circuit board (PCB) or other substrates without pins or short leads. and weld them by reflow welding or immersion welding.

    It is a new generation of electronic assembly technology developed from hybrid integrated circuit technology.

    With the characteristics of component surface mount technology and reflow soldering technology. SMT has become the most popular technology and process in the electronic assembly industry.

    1. The main machine configuration

    The main equipment of the SMT line includes a loader. Solder printing machine. SPI inspection machine. SMT machine (electronic components on the upper surface). reflow Oven. plug-in. wave oven and test packaging.

    The extensive application of SMT promotes the miniaturization and multifunction of electronic products. and provides conditions for mass production and low defect rate production.

    With high assembly density. small volume and light weight of electronic products. the volume and weight of SMT components are only about 1/10 of that of traditional plug-in components.

    After the electric factories adopted SMT. they reduced the volume and weight of electronic products by 40% ~ 60% and 60% ~ 80% respectively.

    2. Field Of SMT Machin

    2.1 Where does SMT line be used?

    As you know. the trend for electronic products is to get smarter. comfortable. fashion look. easy to carry.

    When the electronic component becomes tinier and tinier such as the tiny component size 0201. the size of the previously used plug-in components can not be reduced and adjusted to get matched the small electronic component.

    When the integrated circuit (IC) used has no pierced components. especially the large-scale and highly integrated IC. we have to use surface mount components to meet the needs of customers and enhance the competitiveness of the market.

    SMT-line-operationElectronic products manufacturing

    Also, the electronic component has to be more functional and intelligent when it’s getting tiny. so the SMT has to be more and more widely used in the electronic area. and the requirements for SMT are getting more and more high to meet the needs too.

    And you know. with 5G technology becoming more and more mature. there is no doubt that the demand for the SMT line will be greatly raised.

    2.2 The detailed main fields for the SMT line are listed below

    • Semi-conduct Industry

    Traditionally. semiconductor and SMT production are independent. At present. the integration of the two fields has already become very common.

    The development of advanced packaging technology drives the integration of semiconductor production and traditional SMT.

    Nowadays. some semiconductor packaging companies have bought more and more SMT mounters to mount passive components. and then use a semiconductor die bonder to mount the die to complete SIP manufacturing.

    In fact. most semiconductor manufacturing is related to the chip. Due to different applications of die or flip chip bonders. we have different requirements for the accuracy of the chip.

    For example. standard QFN or BGA Requires 25 microns. FCBGA or FCQFN requires 15-25 microns. cis or camera module requires 10-15 microns. fowls require 5-10 microns. and ultra-fine TCB (hot press welding machine) application requires the most accurate 1-5 microns.

    In this regard. we note that in recent years. SMT equipment suppliers have begun to acquire and merge some die bonder companies.

    such as micronic’s acquisition of MRSI. Fuji’s acquisition of fast food. Yamaha’s acquisition of Shinkawa and ASM’s acquisition of Amicra.

    • LED Lighting Industry

    There are a lot of LED products in our daily life. and the LED lighting industry adopts the SMT Line usually.

    So what are the LED lighting products?

    They are including the tube lights. LED panels. strip lights. and various street lights with the feature of energy saving and cost-effective

    • Automotive electronics Industry

    As the economy gets more and more developed. most of the electronic products are getting automotive.

    Besides. people’s living standards improve a lot. More and more families can get a car for use in daily life. the car is getting more and more intelligent and automotive.

    Automotive electronic systems are usually used in engine management. radio. telematics. in-car entertainment systems and others.


    Automotive electronics Industry – Photo Source

    Many factories for the car are using the SMT line to make mass production go smoothly and save the labor cost. and the quality of the car has been better too.

    • Smart Industry for work and home

    There will be a lot of benefits if the SMT line combines with the MES/EMS/ERP system.

    It can help a lot in the order arrangement. material arrangement (inventory status alert. management of material withdrawal. and etc.) and production plan arrangement.

    Hence. we can reduce the warehousing and production cost to 50%. and we can save the overall cost for the operation for the whole company a lot.

    Factories can use SMT lines to produce various products for the intelligent home control system such as intelligent home appliance control. intelligent lighting control. electronic curtain control. burglar alarm. access control. gas leakage. etc.

    • Electronic Consumer goods production industry

    SMT Line plays an important role in the mass production of components for electronic consumer goods. including TVs. DVD players. video games. washing machine and remote and so on.

    3. Advantages of using the SMT line

    3.1Benefits Of SMT line Machine

    • Safe

    The using of the whole SMT line makes the worker less direct contact with the machine. which really helps to reduce the risk of injury.

    • Saving cost

    ①First of all. the using of the whole SMT line reduces the need for labor. which is good news for saving the labor cost as you know the labor cost has become more and more expensive.

    ②Second. if you use the whole SMT line. all the production steps are linked in the whole line. you don’t need to store the semi-finished component during the production process like the traditional way of not using the SMT line.

    therefore the whole process can reduce lots of space for the material and finished goods the rent cost is getting more and more expensive.

    ③Third. you can get the payment from your client more fast according to the shortening of the production cycle. then you can cut the financial cost to the minimum.

    Furthermore. the factory can have cash on hand. which is very helpful for the operation of the factory.

    In a word. if you can make the cost lower. your product will become more and more competitive and will have more market share accordingly.

    • High quality

    If the manufacturer adds the SMT line to production operations. it will help to lower the defect rate of the product. because the machine will make the operation more precise according to the required standard and the less transmission make the less risk of defect.

    • High efficiency

    The SMT line enables the process to go from one step to another smoothly and nearly no transmit time. it makes the production speed much faster. so the cycle time will be much shorter.

    • High Customer Satisfaction

    The using of the SMT line improves the quality a lot while the whole cycle for the finished goods gets shorten to the minimum. which is a huge advantage different from the traditional one. customer will be very glad to hear that.

    4. Working flow of the SMT line

    4.1 How does the SMT line work?

    • The basic working flow for the SMT line is listed below:

    SMT-Line_SMT-working-processSMT Working Process

    1. Material checking
    2. Loader for loading the PCB material
    3. Solder printing machine for printing
    4. SPI inspection machine
    5. pick and place machine for the component on the PCB board
    6. AOI checking
    7. Reflow in reflow oven
    8. AOI checking
    9. Unloader for unloading the finished PCB board.
    • The basic working flow for the SMT line for the function for each machine is listed below

    1. material machine for checking or Manual detection.

    2. Loader is for loading the PCB in a row in the setting cycle timing.

    3. Solder printing machine is using the palette knife to put the solder even on the panel of PCB for reflow.

    4. SPI inspection machine. solder paste inspection is using the optical principle. such as laser technology. to calculate the solder paste thickness printed on PCB by trigonometry.

    The test standard is that the area covered by solder paste on each pad shall be greater than 75% of the pad area.

    5. Pick and Place machine are for putting the surface original component like electric resistance/capacitance/diode/TR in the right precision position which requires a very high speed. this machine plays a very key important role in the SMT line.

    6. AOI machine is for checking the quality, especially the defect after the pick and place machine finished its job.

    7. Reflow Oven is for melting and cooling the solder which is located between the original component and the PCB board according to the international temperature standard control.

    then the component and PCB board can be melted strongly together and meet the electronic performance. also to needs to be effectively protected from thermal damage and deformation.

    8. AOI checking is for the finished original component and PCB board after the process of the reflow oven.

    Its function is to inspect the welding quality and assembly quality of the pasted PCB.

    The equipment usually has a magnifier and microscope. it automatically scans PCB through the camera. collects images. compares the tested solder joints with the qualified parameters in the database.

    then it checks the defects on PCB through image processing. and displays/marks the defects through a display or automatic mark for repair by maintenance personnel.

    9. PCB Unloader for unloading the fini shed PCB board.

    5. SMT line Layout – 7 Types

    SMT-Line_SMT-selection-analysisSMT selection analysis

    5.1 One Line With Single-rail Pick and Place Machine Layout

    This line is a basic standard production line that including these machines:

    1. Loader
    2. Solder Paste Printer
    3. Conveyor
    4. On-line SPI
    5. NG buffer
    6. Chip Mounter
    7. Conveyor
    8. Single Rail Reflow Oven
    9. Conveyor
    10. Vertical buffer
    11. Online AOI
    12. Reject Conveyor
    13. Automatic Unloader
    SMT Line_One Line With Single-rail Pick and Place Machine Layout

    Click The Image To Zoom In

    1. Loader is used for loading the PCB board in a row in the setting cycle timing.
    2. Solder paste printer is used for the scraper to squeegeed the solder evenly on the panel of PCB for the next reflow process.
    3. Conveyor is simply used for delivering PCB board onto the next machine.
    4. On-line SPI, solder paste inspection is using the optical principle, such as laser technology, to calculate the solder paste thickness printed on PCB by trigonometry.
    5. NG buffer is used for storing the bad board or NG board after receiving the signal from the SPI.
    6. Chip mounter or pick and place machine is used for putting the surface original components like chips, electric resistance/capacitance/diode/TR in the right precision position which requires also a very high speed, this machine plays a very key role in the SMT line.
    7. Conveyor here is used for linkage between the pick and place machine and reflow oven.
    8. Single rail reflow oven is used for melting and cooling the solder which is located between the original component and the PCB board according to the international temperature standard control.
    9. Conveyor here is used for linking the pick and place machine and the next buffer conveyor.
    10. Vertical buffer is used for storage of PCB board exit from the reflow oven.
    11. On-line AOI applied for checking the finished PCB board after the process of reflow oven.
    12. Reject Conveyor is used for rejecting the bad PCB board after the process of reflow oven, which is used to inspect the welding quality and assembly quality of the pasted PCB.
    13. Automatic unloader is used for receiving the finished PCB board automatically.

    5.2 Two-to-One Line With Single-rail Pick and Place Machine Layout

    This layout is designed for single-lane pick and place machines with only one dual-rail reflow oven available, it realizes dual-rail production by combining two separated SMT lines into one dual-rail line.

    The special machines applied in the layout including ①stacker and magazine combination loader, ②PCB Shuttle Conveyor, ③dual-rail reflow oven, and ④NG/OK unloader.

    The advantage of this layout is that the dual-rail production capacity is still applicable when there is only a single-lane pick and place machine available. What’s more, the space is also saved by the application of the PCB Shuttle Conveyor.


    Click The Image To Zoom In

    ①Stacker and magazine combination loader is used for the feeding process of PCB boards. With its two loading structures, it can feed the bare board and double-sided board at the same time. More importantly, Electronicstalk can provide the kind of machine such as the SCL models series.

    ②PCB Shuttle Conveyor is the more frequently used in complex SMT lines due to its connection characteristic. It makes the SMT line shorter and works as a linkage between different lines.

    ③Dual-rail reflow oven, it’s used specifically in the dual-rail production line, which doubles the productivity in one machine.

    ④NG/OK unloader is used for receiving and storing the NG or OK board in dual-line production.

    5.3 Two-to-One Line With Dual-rail Pick and Place Machine Layout

    This layout is designed based on the ①dual-rail chip mounter and ②dual-rail reflow oven and comes with three related ③dual-rail conveyors for linkage. Also, an additional combination of the production line which including these machines:

    Loader, Solder Paste Printer, Conveyor, ④PCB Shuttle Conveyor, ⑤PCB Shuttle Conveyor, Conveyor, Online AOI, ⑥NG/OK Unloader.

    The advantage of this layout is that it doubles the production capacity by adding another SMT assembly line. Also, it saved space due to the use of PCB Shuttle Conveyor, dual-rail pick and place machine, and dual-rail reflow oven.


    Click The Image To Zoom In

    ①Dual-rail chip mounter is used for dual-rail production which doubles the mounting speed of PCB board, Electronics can offer the same dual lane chip mounter such as Juki RX-7R model or Samsung SM471PLUS.

    ②Dual-rail reflow oven is used for double the soldering capacity of PCB board, which Electronicstalk can provide the machine with optional dual-rail such as the RO-1000.

    ③Dual-rail conveyor is used for delivering PCB board from two lanes onto the next machine. And Electronicstalk can provide this kind of machine as well.

    ④PCB Shuttle Conveyor is used for redirecting PCB transmission flow by combining two SMT lines into one dual-rail production line. Correspondingly, the PCB Shuttle Conveyor Electronicstalk offers can be customized by traversing distance.

    ⑤PCB Shuttle Conveyor used here is for separating the dual-rail production line into two single lines.

    ⑥NG/OK Unloader is used for detecting the good or bad board in the last step of the SMT line after the AOI inspection process. The same product that Electronicstalk can provide is the NU series of models.

    5.4 Two-to-One Dual-rail Pick and Place Machine High-speed Layout A

    Compared to the last layout, this one added a new type of ①vacuum and magazine combination loader, ②on-line SPI, ③NG buffer, and added another dual-rail pick and place machine to reach a higher placement speed.

    The advantage of this layout is that it realizes a higher placement speed and improved the quality yield due to additional pick and place machines and inspection machines than the previous layout.


    Click The Image To Zoom In

    ①Vacuum and magazine combination loader is a new type of loader used for the feeding process of PCB, which can both feed the bare board and double-sided board at the same time.

    Electronicstalk can provide the kind of machine which refers to the models of VCL with different dimensions which also support customization.

    ②On-line SPI used after the solder paste printer to check the PCB printing quality.

    ③NG buffer is used to store the bad board that comes out from the upper SPI machine.

    5.5 Two-to-One Dual-rail Pick and Place Machine High-speed Layout B

    The dual-rail layout is the basic design and the feeding speed and capability are improved by changing the loader into a new type of ①stacker and magazine combination loader. Also, compared to the last scheme, it eliminated each on-line SPI and NG buffer, after the solder paste printer. and added another dual-rail pick and place machine to reach an even higher placement speed.

    Instead, it directly installs the PCB Shuttle Conveyor after each solder paste printer and puts the ②dual-rail AOI as the quality inspection of the PCB that is delivered out from the dual-rail reflow oven. On top of that, there is a ③dual-rail rejection conveyor applied to reject any bad boards that come out from the AOI machine.

    The advantage of this layout is that more space is saved due to more layout of dual-rail machines that have been used in the SMT line. But, the total production speed has increased a lot under nearly the same length of the SMT line.


    Click The Image To Zoom In

    ①Stacker and magazine combination loader is another new type of loader used for the feeding process of PCB. It is just as its name applied, it is able to both feed the bare board and double-sided board at the same time.

    Electronicstalk can provide the kind of machine which refers to the models of SCL

    ②Dual-rail AOI is applied at the dual-rail reflow oven to check the PCB soldering quality, which is convenient for saving additional space for SMT line and machine costs.

    ③Dual-rail rejection conveyor is used to store the bad board that comes out from the upper dual-rail AOI machine.

    5.6 Three-to-One Line With Single-rail Pick and Place Machine Layout

    The layout is designed for combining three SMT lines into one.

    The special machines applied in the layout include ①stacker and magazine combination loader, ②PCB turning machine, ③Dual-rail PCB turning machine, ④intermediate section conveyor, and ⑤dual-rail reflow oven.

    The advantage of this layout is that it successfully makes the three SMT production lines inter-connected, which greatly increased the production capacity with the lowest operating costs and machine footprints.


    Click The Image To Zoom In

    ①Stacker and magazine combination loader both utilized the advantage of stacker and magazine loader, which is suitable for the massive feeding and collection of PCB board.

    ②PCB turning machine is used to change the flow direction of PCBs at an angle of 90 degrees or 180 degrees, in order to deliver the PCB from two opposite directions onto one line.

    ③Dual-rail PCB turning machine has just the same features as the last one, but specifically applied in dual rail production.

    ④Intermediate section conveyor is a nonstandard conveyor that is used for intermediate transmission among multiple assembly lines.

    ⑤Dual-rail reflow oven is used for the SMT welding process in two guide rails working at the same time, which maximized the production capability and productivity with only one machine.

    5.7 Multiple Line Combination Layout


    Click The Image To Zoom In

    The layout is designed for multiple complex SMT lines.

    The left-side machines applied in the layout included a loader, solder paste printer, conveyor, chip mounter, and another conveyor, which counted up to 7 same lines in total.

    The right-side machines applied in the layout include a loader, solder paste printer, SPI, conveyor, PCB shuttle conveyor, 2 sets of chip mounter, conveyor, PCB shuttle conveyor, AOI, and another conveyor, which counted up to 4 same lines in total.

    Among these 11 lines, there is an ①intermediate section line combiner to make all of them become inter-connected. In addition, there are three sets of reflow ovens are applied, which contain two dual-rail reflow ovens and one single-rail reflow oven. And the three reflow ovens are all connected by a horizontal PCB shuttle conveyor, which realizes the interconnection among all SMT lines in the layout.

    For each dual-rail reflow oven, there are corresponding machines of dual-rail conveyor and ②dual-rail unloader.

    The advantage of this layout is that it achieves a large complex SMT lines layout in the minimal space taken, which dramatically increased the production capacity with the most efficient layout design.

    ①Intermediate section line combiner is a nonstandard machine, which functions as supper long SMT line interconnection.

    ②Dual-rail unloader is applied at the end of the line when there are dual-lane machines in the production line, which is convenient for the collection of PCB board from both guide rails. By the way, Electronicstalk enables us to provide this product which refers to the model of the DR series.

    5.8 How to Choose The SMT line?

    About the above classifications. base on the automation level of the SMT line. there are full-automation SMT lines and Semi-automation SMT lines.

    Full automatic production line refers to the equipment of the whole production line as full-automatic equipment.

    All production equipment is connected to an automatic line through an automatic board loading machine. buffer belt and automatic board unloading machine, just like the above 7 layouts only referring to the full auto.

    Semi-automatic production line refers to that the main production equipment is not connected or not completely connected. and the printing machine is semi-automatic. Requiring manual printing or manual loading and unloading of printed circuit boards.

    • Due to the production capacity of the SMT line.there are Large SMT lines. Medium SMT line. Small Line.

    The large-scale production line has a large production capacity. The mounter of a large single-sided production line consists of one multi-functional machine and several high-speed machines.

    Small and medium-sized production lines are mainly suitable for research institutes and small and medium-sized enterprises to meet the needs of multiple varieties. small and medium batches or single varieties.

    However. people can use both full-automatic production lines or semi-automatic production lines for medium and small-batch production tasks.

    • Due to the brand of the SMT line. the manufacturers of SMT machines mainly start from the brands of Asia and Europe and America.

    In a word. the suitable one is the best one. you should choose the SMT line that is matched with the situation of production.

    6. Cost of the SMT line Machine

    SMT-Line_SMT-line-costsSMT line costs

    6.1 how much does the SMT line cost?

    Talking about the cost. we should mention the manufacturers or the brand. As you know. the price is highly linked with quality and stability and etc. The brand for the SMT line is mainly from Asia. Europe and America.

    • Brand from Asia are blow:

    Japanese SMT development status and brand: The SMT started early in Japan. there are some brands such as Fuji. Panasonic. Yamaha. Juki. Hitachi(Sanyo). Sony.

    Korean SMT brand: Mirae. Samsung. Assembleon.

    Brand from Europe and America: Siplace. Universal.

    The cost for the SMT line will be different base on the particular situation.

    Since the pick and place machine is the very important one in the SMT line. the cost of the pick and place machine is about 60%-70% of the whole SMT line.

    And the cost of the pick and place machine is mainly depended on the following factors:

    • production capacity

    The capacity for the pick and place can be divided into Large. Middle. Small.

    The brand for large capacity is Asm. Fuji. Panasonic. The capacity for some of them can reach more than 100.000 CPH.

    The price for these brands will be about 700.000 USD which is a really huge cost for most of the companies.

    The brand for the middle capacity is Yamaha. Juki. Samsung. The range for theoretical capacity is from 20.000 CPH to 70.000 CPH based on different types. the range for actual capacity is from 12.000 CPH to 35.000 CPH.

    The range for the price is from 100.000 USD to 200.000 USD.

    • Equipment accuracy

    The SMT line is for production which requires high accuracy. The accuracy is always measured in microns.

    The trend for the component mounted on the SMT line is getting smaller and the function for the component is getting more intelligent.

    If the size of a component is 01005.0201.and etc. you need the machine for higher precision. and the cost is more expensive accordingly.

    SMT-Line_PCB-accuracyPCB Accuracy

    • Parameter Specification

    There are limits for the size of the component for the particular pick and place machine. The size of the PCB and component is smaller. the price is more expensive.

    The brand mentioned above is usually expensive. hence some people may ask is there any machine with a lower cost?

    The answer is yes. As you know there is a need for small capacity and have to change the type of the component frequently in the production. how about the SMT line for that?

    Since China is the world factory. the industry for SMT has achieved great development. Some brands have already been sent to the field all over the world.

    ElectronicsTalk already combines these brands and provides the competitive machines here you could refer to, it has good performance while the much lower cost which is mainly suitable for research institutes and small and medium-sized enterprises to meet the needs of multiple varieties. small and medium batches or single varieties.

    About the cost for the SMT line. based on the information. we knew. most of the brands in Japan. Europe and America are very expensive. maybe at least 8.000.000 USD for each line.

    Thus. many factories can barely afford it. and most factories don’t need such a huge capacity. The cost for the SMT line in China. it is only 1/10 of the cost compared to others in the world.

    So how to choose the SMT line based on the critical needs and the development of the factory?

    7. The operation for the SMT line

    7.1 How to install the SMT line?

    SMT line is composed of a series of high-precision equipment. in order to ensure the correct installation and smooth operation of the SMT line.

    1. The bearing capacity of the factory

    We should make the bearing capacity of the plant floor greater than 8KN/㎡. and control the vibration within 70 dB. the maximum value shall not exceed 80dB. also, the noise shall be within 70dBA.

    1. The gas source

    For the Gas source. according to the requirements of the equipment. the pressure of the air source can be configured. The air source of the factory can be used. or the oil-free compressed air machine can be configured separately.

    The general pressure is greater than 7kg /c㎡. and we also demand clean and dry purified air.

    Therefore. we should remove the oil. dust and water from the compressed air. what is more. we should use stainless steel or pressure-resistant plastic pipe as the air pipe.

    1. The exhaust air

    For the Exhaust air. reflow oven shall have an exhaust fan. For full hot blast furnace. the minimum flow value of the exhaust pipe is 500 cubic feet/min (14.15m3 / min).

    1. The workshop environment

    For the environment. there has to be a dust-free workshop. SMT line dust-free workshop is simply an assembly or assembly workshop with cleanliness requirements for the implementation of surface mounting or surface assembly technology.

    7.2 Architectural design and environment design

    1、Architectural design of SMT dust free workshop

    The architectural design of an SMT dust-free workshop should pay attention to two aspects: ventilation and anti-static.

    SMT-Line_SMT-dust-free-work-shopSMT working shop

    • Exhaust: in addition to ensuring the smoothness of indoor exhaust and smoke is also necessary to ensure sufficient exhaust flow and static pressure. Among them. the former is 200 ㎡ / h. and the latter is 100 PA.
    • Anti-static: the dust-free workshop of SMT should take anti-static measures. the relevant production equipment shall be well-grounded. and the ground. workbench cushion and seat in the production area shall have the effect of anti-static.

    2、 Environment design of SMT dust-free workshop

    The environmental design of an SMT dust-free workshop should pay attention to three aspects: temperature. humidity and air cleanliness.

    • Temperature: workers assembly precision electronic components in the dust-free workshop of we should make the indoor temperature between 17 ℃ ~ 28 ℃. and the minimum requirement is 15 ℃ ~ 35 ℃.
    • Humidity: too high or too low humidity will affect the quality of electronic components. Too high humidity will cause the material to get damp and become unidentified. Too low humidity will produce static electricity.

    Specifically. we should control the humidity in the dust-free workshop of SMT within 45% – 70% RH. and the minimum requirement shall be 30% – 55% RH or 40% – 80% RH.

    • Air cleanliness: as mentioned above.SMT dust-free workshop is mainly due to surface mounting or surface assembly of precision electronic components.

    If the dust content in the air is too large. it will inevitably affect the assembly or assembly of materials. and increase the wear rate of the equipment. resulting in equipment failure.

    The minimum standard of indoor air cleanliness is 100000. the carbon dioxide content is controlled below 1000 ppm. and the carbon monoxide content is controlled below 10 ppm.

    3、Power supply design of SMT dust-free workshop

    The power supply voltage and power in the dust-free workshop of SMT must be stable. specifically. single-phase AC220V (220 ± 10%. 50 / 60Hz). three-phase AC380V (220 ± 10%. 50 / 60Hz).

    If we can not meet these requirements. we should prepare a regulated power supply. and the power of the power supply should be more than 1 times the power consumption of the equipment.

    8. SMT Process Flow Chart

    SMT Process Flow Chart

    solder paste screen printing machine SMD pick and place machine for pcb Reflow soldering machine Automated Optical Inspection wave soldering machine Pcb x ray inspection machine

    9. The Development trend of SMT Line

    The SMT line is faced with large-scale electronic assembly production with high production capacity and high quality. SMT line is the basis of production. At present. it has the following development trends:

    • application of CIMS

    At present. electronic products are developing in the direction of fast update. multi variety and small batch. which requires SMT’s production preparation time to be as short as possible.

    In order to achieve this goal. it is necessary to overcome the problem that the design link and production link are disconnected. and the application of CIMS can completely solve this problem.

    SMT-Line_Computer-Integrated-ManufacturingComputer/contemporary Integrated Manufacturing Systems

    CIMS is a comprehensive automation system which takes database as the center. transfers the data in the design environment to each automatic processing equipment with the help of computer network.

    Besides. it can control and supervise these automatic processing equipment. forming a whole range of activities including design and manufacturing. testing. production process management. material supply and product marketing management.

    CIMS can bring remarkable economic benefits to enterprises: improve product quality. effective utilization of equipment and flexible manufacturing capacity. greatly shorten product design cycle and market time. etc.

    Because CIMS has so many advantages. it can be predicted that CIMS will be more and more widely used in SMT production line.

    • SMT production line is developing towards high efficiency

    High production efficiency is an important indicator to measure the performance of SMT production line.

    The production efficiency of SMT production line is reflected in the productivity efficiency and control efficiency. Capacity efficiency refers to the comprehensive capacity of SMT line equipment.

    • In order to improve capacity efficiency.some The reflux furnace of SMT line is equipped with full-automatic on-line tester.

    so that we can elimminate the interference of human factors in the whole production process. and we can improve the production speed of products greatly. so as to improve the production efficiency;

    ②some SMT production lines are developing from the traditional one-way on-line production to the two-way on-line production. then we can improve the production efficiency and save the floor area.

    The high-efficiency SMT production line has developed from single line production to double line production. which improves the production efficiency while reducing the floor area.

    The control efficiency includes conversion. process control optimization and management optimization.

    The control mode has developed from the traditional step-by-step control mode to the centralized online optimization control. and the conversion time of production board is becoming shorter and shorter.

    At present. many foreign enterprises are using production management software to implement centralized online control management for the whole SMT line. which can monitor and count the production process parameters of each equipment.

    therefore. as to ensure that each machine works under normal conditions and greatly improve the management efficiency and production efficiency of the SMT line.

    • SMT chip production line is developing towards the direction of “green” environmental protection

    Nowadays. the earth where people live has been damaged to varying degrees by people. As a part of industrial production. SMT line with SMT equipment as the main part will destroy our living environment without exception.

    From packaging materials. glue. solder paste. flux and other SMT process materials of electronic components to the production process of SMT production line. there are all kinds of environmental pollutions.

    The more SMT production lines are. the larger the scale is. the more serious the pollution is. Therefore. the new SMT production line is developing towards green line.

    The concept of line refers to the requirement of environmental protection should be considered from the beginning of SMT production. SMT patch factory analyzes the pollution sources and degree that will appear in SMT production.

    • SMT chip production line is developing towards the flexible production environment of information integration.

    With the development of grid information technology and Internet information technology. the product data management and process information control of SMT production line will be gradually improved.

    What is more. the maintenance management of the production line will realize digital information. and the new SMT production line will develop towards the flexible production environment of information integration.

    YouTube video


    What are the different ways to optimize an SMT line?2023-07-13T11:13:09+00:00

    Different ways to optimize an SMT line include:

    • Workflow Analysis: Conduct a thorough analysis of the production workflow to identify bottlenecks, streamline material flow, and eliminate unnecessary steps.
    • Equipment Upgrades: Invest in advanced SMT machines with higher speed, accuracy, and capabilities to improve overall productivity and efficiency.
    • Process Optimization: Optimize solder paste printing, component placement, reflow profiles, and inspection processes for improved quality and throughput.
    • Material Management: Implement efficient material handling systems, accurate inventory management practices, and just-in-time delivery to minimize setup time and maximize material availability.
    • Automation and Robotics: Integrate automation and robotics into the assembly process to enhance productivity, reduce errors, and increase throughput.
    • Lean Manufacturing Principles: Apply lean manufacturing principles, such as 5S methodology, waste reduction, and continuous improvement techniques, to eliminate inefficiencies and enhance overall efficiency.
    • Data Analytics and Real-time Monitoring: Utilize data analytics and real-time monitoring systems to track performance metrics, identify areas for improvement, and make data-driven decisions.
    • Employee Training and Skill Development: Provide regular training to operators and technicians to enhance their skills, knowledge, and troubleshooting abilities.
    • Quality Control Measures: Implement robust quality control measures, including inline inspections, defect detection systems, and statistical process control, to ensure high product quality and minimize rework.
    • Continuous Improvement Culture: Foster a culture of continuous improvement by encouraging employee involvement, soliciting feedback, and implementing suggestions for process enhancements.
    • Supplier Collaboration: Collaborate closely with suppliers to ensure timely delivery of high-quality components and negotiate favorable terms to optimize the supply chain.
    • Maintenance and Calibration: Regularly maintain and calibrate equipment to prevent breakdowns and ensure optimal performance.
    • By implementing these optimization strategies, an SMT line can achieve increased throughput, improved quality, reduced cycle times, enhanced resource utilization, and overall operational excellence.
    What are the different challenges that can occur during the manufacturing process?2023-07-13T11:08:09+00:00

    Different challenges that can occur during the manufacturing process include:

    • Supply Chain Disruptions: Issues such as component shortages, delays in material delivery, or disruptions in the supply chain can impact production schedules and cause delays.
    • Quality Control Issues: Defective components, soldering defects, inconsistent processes, or inadequate inspection practices can result in poor product quality and customer dissatisfaction.
    • Equipment Breakdowns: Unplanned equipment failures or breakdowns can lead to production downtime, impacting productivity and delaying delivery schedules.
    • Process Variability: Inconsistent process parameters, variations in material properties, or environmental factors can introduce variability in product quality and performance.
    • Capacity Constraints: Limited production capacity or mismatches between demand and production capabilities can pose challenges in meeting customer requirements on time.
    • Skill Gaps and Training Needs: Insufficient operator skills, lack of knowledge in advanced technologies, or inadequate training programs can hinder efficient production and lead to errors.
    • Cost Management: Balancing cost efficiency while maintaining product quality and meeting customer expectations is an ongoing challenge, especially with fluctuating raw material costs and market demands.
    • Regulatory Compliance: Adhering to complex regulatory requirements related to safety, environmental standards, and product certifications adds complexity to the manufacturing process.
    • Continuous Improvement: Ensuring a culture of continuous improvement and implementing effective methodologies, such as Lean or Six Sigma, can be challenging but necessary for optimizing processes and reducing waste.
    • Technological Advancements: Keeping up with rapidly evolving technologies and industry trends requires ongoing investment, research, and development efforts.
    • Successfully addressing these challenges involves proactive planning, effective risk management, strong quality control measures, regular equipment maintenance, employee training and engagement, and adaptability to changing market conditions.
    What are the different factors that affect the efficiency of an SMT line?2023-07-13T10:53:18+00:00

    Different factors that affect the efficiency of an SMT line include:

    • Equipment Performance: The reliability, speed, accuracy, and maintenance of SMT machines directly impact the overall efficiency of the line.
    • Process Optimization: Efficient stencil design, solder paste printing, component placement, reflow profiles, and inspection processes contribute to maximizing productivity and minimizing defects.
    • Material Management: Effective management of materials, including components, solder paste, PCBs, and production consumables, is crucial for reducing setup time, minimizing downtime, and maintaining smooth material flow.
    • Workflow and Layout: A well-designed workflow and optimized layout ensure streamlined material flow, minimized travel distance, reduced changeover time, and efficient use of available space.
    • Operator Skills and Training: Proper training and skill development of operators and technicians improve their efficiency in machine operation, troubleshooting, and problem-solving.
    • Quality Control Measures: Implementing comprehensive quality control measures such as inline inspections, defect detection systems, and robust testing protocols helps identify and address issues early, preventing rework and improving overall efficiency.
    • Maintenance and Downtime: Regular preventive maintenance, calibration, and quick resolution of equipment failures or breakdowns are essential to minimize unplanned downtime and maximize operational efficiency.
    • Production Volume and Mix: Balancing production volume and product mix based on demand ensures optimal utilization of resources, equipment, and labor.
    • Data Analytics and Process Monitoring: Real-time monitoring, data analysis, and performance metrics tracking enable identifying areas for improvement, optimizing processes, and making informed decisions.
    • Continuous Improvement Culture: Fostering a culture of continuous improvement encourages employees to seek out efficiencies, suggest process enhancements, and implement best practices to drive overall line efficiency.
    • Considering these factors and implementing strategies to optimize them can significantly improve the efficiency and productivity of an SMT line.
    What are the different SMT line layouts?2023-07-13T10:47:38+00:00

    Different SMT line layouts include:

    • In-Line Layout: In this layout, the machines and processes are arranged in a linear sequence, allowing for a straightforward flow of PCBs through the production line.
    • U-Shaped Layout: The U-shaped layout forms a horseshoe-shaped arrangement where the machines and processes are positioned along the perimeter. This layout reduces travel distances and allows for efficient material flow.
    • L-Shaped Layout: The L-shaped layout consists of two perpendicular lines, forming an “L” shape. This layout is suitable for optimizing space utilization and accommodating various processes within a compact area.
    • Cell Layout: In a cell layout, different machines and processes are organized into individual cells, each dedicated to a specific assembly task. Cells can operate independently or in coordination with other cells, providing flexibility and modularity.
    • Multi-Level Layout: Multi-level layouts involve vertically stacking machines and processes on multiple levels or floors. This layout optimizes floor space usage while maintaining the flow and efficiency of the production line.
    • Dual Lane Layout: In a dual lane layout, two parallel production lines operate side by side, allowing for higher throughput and simultaneous processing of multiple PCBs.
    • Hybrid Layout: Hybrid layouts combine different elements from various layouts to tailor the production line design to specific needs. It may involve a combination of in-line, U-shaped, L-shaped, or other layouts based on the available space and production requirements.
    • The choice of SMT line layout depends on factors such as available space, production volume, process flow, material handling requirements, and specific operational considerations of the manufacturing facility.
    What are the environmental and safety considerations for SMT lines?2023-07-13T10:15:19+00:00

    Environmental and safety considerations for SMT lines include:

    • E-Waste Management: Proper disposal and recycling of electronic waste generated during the manufacturing process, ensuring compliance with local regulations and minimizing environmental impact.
    • Hazardous Materials: Handling and disposal of hazardous materials, such as solder paste, fluxes, and cleaning agents, should follow safety guidelines and be in accordance with applicable environmental regulations.
    • Lead-Free Manufacturing: Transitioning to lead-free soldering processes to reduce the environmental impact and comply with regulations governing the use of hazardous substances.
    • Energy Efficiency: Implementing energy-efficient practices and equipment to minimize energy consumption and reduce the carbon footprint of the manufacturing facility.
    • Air Quality Control: Ensuring proper ventilation and air filtration systems to control emissions from soldering processes, reducing exposure to harmful fumes and particulate matter.
    • Workplace Safety: Providing appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) to employees working with chemicals, performing maintenance tasks, or operating machinery. Conducting regular safety training and promoting a safe work environment.
    • RoHS Compliance: Adhering to the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive, which restricts the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment.
    • Environmental Management Systems: Establishing an environmental management system to monitor and continuously improve environmental performance, waste reduction, and resource conservation.
    • Compliance with Regulations: Staying updated with relevant environmental and safety regulations governing electronics manufacturing and ensuring compliance at all stages of the SMT line.
    • Sustainability Initiatives: Incorporating sustainable practices, such as using renewable materials, optimizing energy usage, and implementing recycling programs, to reduce waste and promote environmental responsibility.
    • Considering these environmental and safety considerations helps ensure responsible and sustainable operation of SMT lines, protecting the environment, safeguarding the health and safety of workers, and complying with regulatory requirements.
    How can SMT lines be optimized for efficiency and productivity?2023-07-13T10:11:27+00:00

    SMT lines can be optimized for efficiency and productivity through the following measures:

    • Streamlined Workflow: Analyze and optimize the production workflow to ensure smooth and efficient material flow, minimize unnecessary handling, and reduce bottlenecks.
    • Automated Component Handling: Utilize automated component storage and retrieval systems to minimize manual handling and reduce setup time.
    • Advanced Pick-and-Place Machines: Invest in high-speed and high-accuracy pick-and-place machines capable of handling a wide range of component types and sizes.
    • Stencil Design and Printing Optimization: Optimize stencil design, aperture sizes, and solder paste printing parameters to ensure accurate and consistent solder paste deposition.
    • Efficient Component Placement: Optimize component placement programs to minimize travel times and maximize machine utilization, ensuring optimal cycle times.
    • Intelligent Scheduling: Implement intelligent production scheduling algorithms to optimize machine allocation and minimize changeover times.
    • Inline Testing and Inspection: Incorporate inline testing and inspection equipment, such as automated optical inspection (AOI) or X-ray systems, to detect defects early in the process, reducing rework and improving quality.
    • Quality Control Measures: Implement robust quality control measures at various stages of production to prevent, detect, and correct defects promptly.
    • Continuous Training and Skill Development: Provide regular training to operators and technicians to enhance their skills and knowledge related to SMT processes and equipment.
    • Data Analytics and Process Monitoring: Utilize data analytics and real-time process monitoring to identify inefficiencies, track performance metrics, and make data-driven decisions for process optimization.
    • Preventive Maintenance: Follow a preventive maintenance schedule to ensure machines are properly maintained, minimizing unplanned downtime and maximizing equipment effectiveness.
      Lean Manufacturing Principles: Apply lean manufacturing principles, such as 5S methodology, to create a clean, organized, and efficient work environment.
    • By implementing these optimization strategies, SMT lines can achieve higher throughput, improved quality, reduced cycle times, and enhanced overall productivity.
    What are some of the common problems that occur on SMT lines?2023-07-13T10:07:25+00:00

    Common problems that occur on SMT lines include:

    • Misalignment: Components may be improperly placed or misaligned, leading to soldering issues and potential electrical failures.
    • Solder Joint Defects: Insufficient solder, cold solder joints, solder bridges, or tombstoning (where one end of a component lifts off the PCB) can occur, impacting the reliability of connections.
    • Component Damage: Components can get damaged during handling or assembly, resulting in defective or non-functional parts.
    • Insufficient Solder Paste: Inadequate solder paste deposition can lead to incomplete or weak solder joints.
    • Warpage: PCB warpage due to thermal stress during reflow can cause poor component alignment and solder joint defects.
    • Solder Ball Formation: Excessive solder paste or incorrect reflow profiles can lead to the formation of solder balls, causing short circuits or electrical instability.
    • Tombstoning: Asymmetrical heating during reflow can cause components to lift at one end, resulting in tombstoning.
    • Moisture Related Issues: Improper handling and storage of moisture-sensitive components (MSDs) can lead to delamination, popcorning, or other defects during reflow.
    • Process Variability: Inconsistent process parameters, such as stencil printing, component placement, or reflow profiles, can result in variations in quality and reliability.
    • Faulty Equipment: Equipment malfunctions, calibration errors, or wear and tear can impact the performance and accuracy of SMT machines.
    • Addressing these problems often involves careful process optimization, regular equipment maintenance, proper training for operators, and implementing robust quality control measures throughout the production line.
    What are the future trends in SMT technology?2023-07-13T09:58:40+00:00

    Future trends in SMT technology include:

    • Miniaturization: Continued miniaturization of components, enabling more compact and lightweight electronic devices.
    • High-Density Interconnects: Advancements in HDI (High-Density Interconnect) technology, allowing for even higher component density and improved signal integrity.
    • 3D Packaging: Adoption of 3D packaging techniques, such as package-on-package (PoP) and system-in-package (SiP), to further increase component integration and functionality.
    • Advanced Materials: Development of new materials with enhanced thermal conductivity, lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and improved electrical performance, enabling better heat dissipation and reliability.
    • Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0: Integration of data analytics, automation, Internet of Things (IoT), and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies to create smart factories and optimize production processes.
    • Additive Manufacturing: Exploration of additive manufacturing techniques, like 3D printing, for the fabrication of customized PCBs and complex electronic structures.
    • Robotics and Automation: Increasing use of robotics and automation in handling, assembly, and inspection processes to improve efficiency, accuracy, and productivity.
    • Improved Inspection Technologies: Advancements in inspection systems, including machine vision, automated optical inspection (AOI), and X-ray inspection, for faster and more accurate defect detection and quality control.
    • Sustainable Manufacturing: Emphasis on eco-friendly and sustainable practices, such as lead-free soldering, recyclable materials, and energy-efficient production methods.
    • Flexible and Stretchable Electronics: Development of flexible and stretchable substrates and components for applications in wearable devices, flexible displays, and conformal electronics. These trends are driven by the need for smaller, more efficient, and environmentally friendly electronic devices, as well as the push for increased automation and connectivity in manufacturing processes.
    What are the challenges of setting up and maintaining an SMT line?2023-07-13T09:49:29+00:00

    Challenges of setting up and maintaining an SMT line include:

    • Initial Investment: SMT equipment can be expensive, requiring a significant upfront investment.
      Expertise and Training: Operating and maintaining SMT lines requires specialized knowledge and training for technicians and operators.
    • Equipment Calibration: SMT machines need regular calibration to ensure accurate component placement and soldering. Calibration can be time-consuming and may require technical expertise.
    • Component Sourcing: Sourcing reliable and high-quality SMT components from trusted suppliers can be challenging, especially for specialized or unique components.
    • Process Optimization: Optimizing the production process, including stencil design, solder paste application, reflow profiles, and component inspection, can be complex and time-consuming.
    • Line Balancing: Achieving efficient workflow and balancing production across different machines and processes can be a challenge, particularly in high-volume production scenarios.
    • Quality Control: Ensuring consistent quality throughout the production process requires implementing stringent quality control measures, including inspection systems and defect detection methodologies.
    • Maintenance and Downtime: SMT machines require regular maintenance, and unexpected downtime can impact production schedules and increase costs.
    • Component Handling and Storage: Proper handling and storage of sensitive SMT components, such as moisture-sensitive devices (MSDs), require controlled environments and adherence to specific handling protocols.
    • Technology Advancements: SMT technology continually evolves, necessitating regular updates and upgrades to keep up with advancements and remain competitive.

    Successfully overcoming these challenges requires careful planning, continuous improvement efforts, and a proactive approach to equipment maintenance and process optimization.

    What are the advantages of SMT lines over traditional through-hole assembly?2023-07-13T09:46:40+00:00

    Advantages of SMT lines over traditional through-hole assembly include:

    • Size and Weight: SMT components are smaller and lighter, allowing for compact and lightweight electronic devices.
    • Cost Efficiency: SMT assembly reduces material costs due to smaller component sizes and eliminates the need for drilling holes in PCBs.
    • Enhanced Performance: SMT components offer improved electrical performance, higher operating frequencies, and reduced electromagnetic interference.
    • Increased Density: SMT allows for higher component density on PCBs, enabling more functionality within a smaller space.
    • Faster Production: SMT lines facilitate faster assembly processes, including automated component placement and simultaneous soldering, leading to shorter production cycles.
    • Higher Reliability: SMT connections are mechanically stronger and less prone to failure caused by vibrations or thermal stress.
    • Improved Thermal Management: SMT components dissipate heat better than through-hole counterparts, enhancing overall thermal management of the device.
    • Design Flexibility: SMT allows for greater design flexibility, with the ability to place components on both sides of the PCB.
    • Automated Manufacturing: SMT lines can be fully automated, reducing manual labor and increasing production efficiency.
    • Repairability and Upgradability: SMT components are easier to replace or upgrade, simplifying repair and maintenance processes.

    It’s important to note that while SMT offers numerous advantages, through-hole assembly still has its applications, particularly for components requiring high power or mechanical stability.

    What are the different types of SMT lines?2023-07-13T09:40:07+00:00

    The different types of SMT lines include:

    1. Manual SMT Line
    2. Semi-Automatic SMT Line
    3. Fully Automated SMT Line
    4. High-Speed SMT Line
    5. Flexible SMT Line
    6. LED SMT Line
    7. Odd-Form SMT Line
    8. Prototype SMT Line.

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