Wave Soldering Machine2023-08-23T10:41:18+00:00

Wave Soldering Machine: A Comprehensive Guide

Wave soldering machine is used for soldering the through-hole and SMD board in the DIP process. According to the maximum PCB width and different configuration, there are 6 models in total.

What is Wave Soldering?

Wave soldering uses a pumped wave of molten solder to solder electronic components onto PCBs. The PCB passes over the crest of the solder wave, allowing the solder to wet and adhere to the metal surfaces of the board and components. This forms a strong solder joint to mechanically and electrically connect the components.

A Brief History of Wave Soldering

The origins of wave soldering can be traced back to the 1950s when the first reliable soldering machines were developed. The method became popular in the 1960s and 70s for soldering through-hole components on PCBs in the electronics manufacturing industry. The first automated wave soldering machines were introduced in the 1980s.

Key Benefits of Wave Soldering

  • The highly efficient and fast soldering process
  • Ability to solder many joints simultaneously
  • Consistent and repeatable soldering quality
  • Suitable for high-volume PCB production
  • Low operational costs compared to other soldering methods

Types of Wave Soldering Machines

There are several types of wave soldering machines:

  • Single wave – A single linear solder wave for basic soldering
  • Dual wave – Separate waves for soldering and fluxing
  • Multi-wave – Multiple solder waves in a single machine
  • Lead-free wave – Using lead-free solder alloys


wave soldering machine 450mm

PCB Wave Soldering Machine(450mm)


How Wave Soldering Machines Work

Wave soldering machines operate by passing PCBs over a wave of molten solder to form reliable solder joints. Let’s look at the stages involved:

The Wave Soldering Process

There are five main stages:

  1. Flux application – Flux is applied to remove oxides and improve solder flow
  2. Preheating – PCBs are preheated to prevent thermal shock
  3. Wave soldering – PCBs pass over the solder wave to wet components and form joints
  4. Cooling – PCBs are cooled to solidify the solder joints
  5. Cleaning – Excess flux is removed from the PCBs

Components of a Wave Soldering Machine

Key components include:

  • Solder pot – Holds the molten solder
  • Solder pump – Generates the solder wave
  • Heat exchangers – Control the solder temperature
  • Fluxer – Applies flux onto PCBs
  • Preheater – Heats PCBs before soldering
  • Conveyor – Transports PCBs through the machine

Choosing a Wave Soldering Machine

Several factors should be considered when selecting a wave soldering machine:

Factors to Consider

  • Board size – The machine must accommodate the PCB size
  • Throughput – The number of boards soldered per hour
  • Alloy compatibility – Suitability for lead or lead-free alloys
  • Temperature control – Accurate heat control for good solder joints
  • Maintenance – Ease of routine maintenance and servicing

Types of Wave Soldering Machines

  • Benchtop – Compact units for low-volume soldering
  • Inline – For automated high-volume soldering lines
  • Multi-wave – For complex or high-speed soldering

Top Wave Soldering Machine Models

Some of the best wave soldering machines are:

  • WS-350 – Lead free wave soldering machine
  • WS-250 – Small wave soldering machine
  • EW-300 – Medium wave soldering
  • WS-200 – Raliable Mini wave soldering machine

Using a Wave Soldering Machine

Following proper techniques and safety is key to successfully using a wave soldering machine:

Step-by-Step Machine Operation

  1. Program soldering parameters into machine
  2. Set up board holders and conveyors
  3. Turn on the pump to generate a solder wave
  4. Set preheating temperature
  5. Load flux and solder into reservoirs
  6. Feed boards into the machine
  7. Inspect soldered boards at the outlet

Important Safety Precautions

  • Wear protective equipment
  • Handle molten solder carefully
  • Ensure mechanical guards are in place
  • Follow manufacturer safety guidelines

Troubleshooting Wave Soldering Issues

Some common wave soldering problems and solutions:

Common Wave Soldering Problems

  • Solder bridges – Excess solder between joints
  • Icicles – Jagged solder protrusions
  • Cold solder joints – Weak bonding of solder
  • Solder balls – Spheres of solder between joints

Troubleshooting Tips

  • Adjust conveyor speed and solder temperature
  • Use higher-quality flux
  • Clean and maintain solder pot
  • Ensure even heat distribution


Wave soldering is an efficient and high-quality soldering technique suitable for automated PCB production. Choosing the right soldering machine and following good soldering practices helps ensure a smooth soldering process with reliable solder joints. Additional resources for learning more about wave soldering include industry associations, equipment manufacturers, and soldering handbooks.


Is wave soldering still used?2023-07-28T08:07:04+00:00
Yes, wave soldering is still commonly used today, especially for high volume PCB assembly, though selective wave and reflow are also popular.
What is an alternative to wave soldering?2023-07-28T08:06:12+00:00
Alternatives include reflow soldering, selective soldering, and manual soldering for low volume production.
What is the disadvantage of wave soldering?2023-07-28T08:05:30+00:00
Disadvantages include potential bridging between joints, thermal shock to components, and difficulty soldering high density boards.
What is PCB wave soldering?2023-07-28T08:04:50+00:00
PCB wave soldering involves passing a PCB over a wave of molten solder to solder components in place. It efficiently solders high volumes of PCBs.
What is the best solder ratio?2023-07-28T08:04:16+00:00
A 60/40 tin/lead ratio provides good wetting and melting and is a popular solder ratio, though 63/37 is also common.
What type of solder is used for PCBs?2023-07-28T08:02:30+00:00
For PCB assembly, common solders are 63/37 tin/lead or lead-free SAC305. SAC305 is more environmentally friendly.
Why is wave soldering used?2023-07-28T08:01:34+00:00
Wave soldering is commonly used for through-hole components and for soldering the bottom side of PCBs. It allows many boards to be processed quickly.
What is wave soldering and reflow soldering?2023-07-28T08:00:46+00:00
Wave soldering uses a wave of molten solder to solder components to a PCB. Reflow soldering uses a solder paste that is heated until it melts to create solder joints.
What is selective wave soldering vs wave soldering?2023-07-28T08:00:14+00:00
Selective wave soldering only applies solder to certain areas of a printed circuit board (PCB) using a focused wave. Regular wave soldering submerges the whole PCB in a wave of solder to coat all solderable surfaces.

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